Robots give way to a labor market 4.0
Robots give way to a labor market 4.0
The machines have already broken into the jobs. What for some may be a threat, is for others an opportunity to renew themselves
“I think that over time we will probably see a clearer fusion of biological and digital intelligence.” That was how forceful was Elon Musk, CEO of Tesla, at the World Government Summit held this month in Dubai (United Arab Emirates).
The facts endorse the words of this Silicon Valley guru. The most important companies in the sector fine-tune their artificial intelligence systems every day. There are the victories of Google Deep Mind in chess and the medical applications of IBM Watson. Meanwhile, on the other hand, universities put their research studies to the test in the labor market. Proof of this is the research of Benedikt Frey and Michael Osborne, professors of Oxford who assure that the probability of being replaced by a robot in the case of telemarketers will be 99% in the next twenty years; 92% in the sellers and half in the case of the pilots. But is it true that robots will end up with jobs?
The so-called Industrial Revolution 4.0 has landed in the global industry and also in the Spanish industry. “Many companies still have among their duties the adaptation to digitalization and overcome resistance to change, some sectors will adapt more quickly and others will be slower,” says David Ruiz de Olano, program director of the Deusto Business School.
The work of tomorrow
Thomas Frey, executive director of the DaVinci Institute and one of Google’s preferred futurologists, says that in 2030 more than 2 billion jobs will disappear, although in his list of professions of the future he sees an opportunity in the arrival of technology to the market labor.
The sectors with greater opportunities are the internet of things, the ‘Big Data’ and also 3D printing. The DaVinci Institute expert points to augmented reality and expert architects that regulate relationships with avatars. Frey points out that the interest of men in this field will cause the need to “manage and limit dangerous relationships with avatars”.
In the future, the mentality of the human being will begin to worry about the viability of the planet due to the scarcity of resources and will appear the figures of the atmospheric water harvester, fear containment agents, molecular gastronomes and human farmers.
In his opinion, new industries, sectors and techniques will be created that he has collected in the article ‘Fourteen skills and 162 bets of future jobs’. Frey goes further: “In the future, contextualists will be necessary to understand each new technology and know how to apply it”.
According to a study by Randstad, the labor transformation that is already being experienced will result in the creation in Spain of 1,250,000 net jobs in the next five years. However, the study of the temporary work company itself warns that in 2020 there will be 1.9 million skilled workers in Spain.
The emergence of robots “will not mean the disappearance of jobs in itself, but a replacement of workers who until now have been working in certain jobs by robots,” said Ruiz. Olano. A theory that in 1930 already shaped the economist John Maynard Keynes: “Thanks to the technological development we will end up working only 15 hours a week”.
Hollywood called it ‘The rebellion of machines’ and is one of the most used topics on the big screen. However, beyond fiction, technology is an ally in today’s society and what it has caused is “a redefinition of jobs and the transformation of business processes”, explains Esther LÃ³pez MarÃn, director of the Ametic Foundation, the Association of Electronics, Information Technology, Telecommunications and Digital Content Companies.
“The robots will only be seen as a threat if there is no adequate regulation, something that, although still incipiently, is already beginning to be addressed,” adds Ruiz de Olano. However, “it is important to analyze all possible scenarios and their consequences” on the viability of social security systems. Therefore, Mady Delvaux, Luxembourg MEP, explains: “We need to start an inclusive debate on the new employment models and on the sustainability of our tax and social systems, guaranteeing that there is sufficient income to support them”.
Precisely, in February the European Parliament gave the green light, with 396 votes in favor, 123 against and 85 abstentions, to a resolution that invites the European Commission (EC) to prepare a legislative proposal that devotes special attention to “the security, privacy, integrity, dignity, autonomy and ownership of the data “.
European politicians have promoted the report drafted by the European Parliament of the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats. The signatories of the proposal consider it urgent to establish norms that guarantee the security, privacy, integrity, dignity and autonomy of the people in their interaction with the robots.
The drafted text has a maxim: “A robot will not harm a human being or, by inaction, allow a human being to suffer damage, a robot must obey the orders given by human beings.” This is one of the Three Laws of the Robotics of Isaac Asimov and for that reason the MEPs propose “the incorporation of an emergency switch that guarantees that anyone can disconnect them if they cause damage”. “Robots are machines, which are meant to serve human beings and help them with difficult tasks,” says Mady Delvaux.
Among the most sensitive issues, the European Parliament raises the possibility of applying taxes and social contributions to robots (or companies that use them) to compensate for the loss of jobs they cause. “A tax paid by the entrepreneur would end up becoming a tax on innovation and this will end up discouraging the entrepreneur and the entrepreneur from innovating,” says Deusto’s program director.
However, they have also monitored the rights of those who may be their future co-workers and have raised with the EC a deep reflection on the rights and obligations of robots.